WHAT IS GLAUCOMA?
Glaucoma is a disease which leads to a damage to the optic nerve which causes progressive and irreversible vision loss. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness all around the Globe and mostly affects people over the age of 60 Years.
Types of Retinal Detachment
1. Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment : It is the most common type of Retinal Detachment which takes place slowly over a period of time. It leads to a hole, tear or a breakage in the retina which allows the vitreous fluid i.e the fluid which is in the middle of the eye gets under the retina which separates it from the Retinal Pigment Epithelium ( RPE ) which is the layer that nourishes the Retina
2.Tractional Retinal Detachment : It happens with the scar tissue or other tissues which then may further lead on the retina and stretch or pull it away from the Retinal Pigment Epithelium ( RPE ) i.e the layer underneath. This type of Retinal Detachment is less common but can lead to severe loss of eyesight as happens in diabetic patients.
3.Exudative Retinal Detachment : Which is also known as Serious Retinal Detachment happens when the fluid is collected without any tear, hole or breakage in the retina. This is a rare type of Retinal Detachment and is caused due to various reasons like:
- Inflammatory Diseases
- High Blood Pressure
- Kidney Diseases
- Lyme Disease
- Eye Tumour
What are the types of Glaucoma?
1. OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA
Also called as Primary Open-angle GlaucomaThis is the most common form of glaucoma, chronic open-angle glaucoma is an outcome of a pressure build-up in the eye which leads to severe vision loss without showing any noticeable symptoms of the same. Its exact cause is still a mystery.
2. ACUTE CLOSED-ANGLE GLAUCOMA
Acute Closed-angle Glaucoma also called as an acute attack is completely opposite of that of Chronic Open-angle Glaucoma as its occurrence is sudden and very painful. It can cause severe damage and lead to permanent loss of vision in a short span of time.
3. SECONDARY GLAUCOMA
Secondary Glaucoma occurs as a result of something else apart from internal pressure which including the following:
i. Previous medical conditions.
What are the types of Glaucoma?
Treatment of Glaucoma
Glaucoma can be treated with eye drops, pills, laser surgery, traditional surgery and a combination of all of these methods depending on its severity.The loss of vision from glaucoma is irreversible and the ultimate goal of any treatment is to prevent the loss of vision. Glaucoma can be treated if diagnosed at an early stage.
- i. Eye Drops: Eye drops can decrease the pressure in the eye by slowing the production of fluids within the eye and improving the flow of the drainage.
- ii. Pills: Pills may be prescribed in addition to drops.
- iii. Laser Surgery: Laser surgery has recently become popular as it is a midway of medications and traditional eye surgery. In this procedure, the eye’s drainage system is changed in very subtle ways so that aqueous fluid is able to pass more easily out of the drain, which leads to lowering the IOP.
- iv. Surgery: The obvious aim of glaucoma surgery and rest other treatments are to reduce or stabilize the Intra Ocular pressure (IOP). When the goal is accomplished by stabilising the pressure, damage to ocular structures – especially of the optic nerve – may be prevented.
A) Trabeculectomy :
it is a surgical procedure done to relieve and stabilize the Intraocular pressure by extracting out a part of the eye’s trabecular meshwork and adjacent meshwork.The surgery helps in controlling the leaking fluid from the eye, which percolates under the conjunctiva. The surgery produces a valve where the same conjunctival bubble appears at the junction of the cornea and the sclera.
B) Implants for Glaucoma : Shunts and Stents are small devices in a shape of a tube made of plastic, metal or fabric that are inserted into the eye surgically to increase the outflow of intraocular fluid and reduce the high eye pressure. The stent helps in reducing and stabilizing the pressure in the eye. The devices create an alternative passageway to relieve obstructions and keep the passage open for the aqueous to escape from the eye by creating a separate passage to bypass the damaged part of the eye where the drainage occurs which leads to reduce and stabilise the pressure on the eye.